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2005考研英语阅读理解详解

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导读: 2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇一:2005考研英语大纲解析--阅读理解 ...

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2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇一:2005考研英语大纲解析--阅读理解

考研英语大纲解析:阅读理解(Part A) 2013-09-13 19:35

万学教育 海文考研 教学与研究中心 王美伊

历经近二十年的变革,考研英语试题已经逐渐趋于稳定化了。9月13日《2014年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语考试大纲》问世了。与2013年相比,英语(一)和英语(二)的传统阅读部分内容均没有实质性变化。考生可以按照原有的复习思路进行系统、深度地复习。 根据英语(一)大纲,“考生应能读懂选自各类书籍和报刊的不同类型的文字材料(生词量不超过所读材料总词汇量的3%),还应能读懂与本人学习或工作有关的文献、技术说明和产品介绍等。英语(二)大纲要求“考生应能读懂不同题材和体裁的文字材料,题材包括经济、管理、社会、文化、科普等,体裁包括说明文、议论文和记叙文等”。 对比可见,英语(一)在考试时会出现超纲单词,这无形中给考生增加了难度;而英语(二)不仅明确指出了阅读材料的题材和体裁,并且没有提到超纲词,那么就使得考生可以有的放矢而且没有生词的顾虑。 再对比英语(一)和英语(二)对考生阅读能力的要求,可以发现英语(一)不仅要求考生能理解主旨要义;文中的具体信息;作者的意图、观点或态度;文章的总体结构和上下文关系;根据上下文推测生词的词义;还要能够理解文中的概念性含义;进行有关的判断、推理和引申;区分论点和论据。“理解文中的概念性含义”、“进行有关的判断、推理和引申”以及“区分论点和论据”这是英语(一)和英语(二)在阅读上要求的主要区别,在英语(一)的复习过程中应当引起特别重视,

在备考英语的过程中,提高阅读能力尤为重要。第一,要掌握大纲词汇,基础词汇着重关注熟词僻义以及注意结合上下文加以理解;核心词汇应能做到见形会义;超纲词汇也要有所涉猎,平时注意专业倾向内的词汇总结。除此之外,在阅读的过程中学会利用词根词缀,“瞻前顾后”的原则等猜测生词含义。第二,要提高解读长难句的能力。要能分析把握句子成分之间的结构和逻辑关系,学会抓主干的基本长句分析方法;能够识别插入结构、并列结构和固定搭配等以达到简化长句的理解;加强对定语从句、比较结构、省略结构等难句的练习,以克服长难句构成的阅读障碍。第三,也是最重要的一点要掌握正确的阅读方法和有效的阅读技能。考研阅读的文章本来读起来就不容易,选项也可谓“刁”,因此只有通过研习真题,总结考研英语阅读的规律,再采取相应的阅读技巧,固化解题方法和解题思路。那么,究竟什么才是阅读的正确方法和思路呢?

就阅读理解(Part A)而言,连着考了十几年,是大家最熟悉的,每次考试最稳定的就是传统阅读理解部分。关于文章题材,考研英语近几年越来越重视对人文科学的考查,因此平时要多阅读一些英美经济文化科技方面的报刊书籍,例如The Economist (经济学家),Newsweek (新闻周刊),Time (时代周刊)上面的文章。而阅读理解文章来源,根据2014大纲,文章依旧来自英语国家原版报刊或书籍,绝大多数是评论性的文章(即除文学作品以外的其他类型的短文)。考研的文章经常采取正反交替举例的方法来阐述观点,有作者认同的,也有作者批评的,最后再用实例来论证作者的观点。这种语篇思维模式往往是考生在阅读理解中的重大障碍,而最近几年的考研阅读文章都涉及到这种语篇模式,因此大家阅读时要从字里行间去把握作者观点、立足点、态度语气等。同时,英语作者通常追求“标新立异”,所以同学们在把握作者的观点时应留意,不要受到常识的干扰,尊重原文,尊重直接证据。最后从语言角度来说,2014年生词依然存在,维持在3%,语法长难句依然是阅读的一大障碍,文章不易读;命题侧重考查推理题以及细节题,命题的风格、干扰手段和往年一致,因此解

题思路也和往年一致。

2014年的英语大纲与2013年相比,阅读理解(Part A)保持稳定,各位考生可以按既定思路和计划进行复习。“得阅读者,得天下”,各位考生一定要脚踏实地落实自己的计划,这样才能在明年1月的时候迎来马到成功。

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇二:考研英语阅读理解真题答案及解析

考研英语阅读理解真题答案及解析

CONTENTS

PREFACE ··················································· D 2006 TEXT 1 ··············································· 1 2006 TEXT 2 ··············································· 3 2006 TEXT 3 ··············································· 6 1999 PASSAGE 1 ······································· 78 1999 PASSAGE 2 ······································· 81 1999 PASSAGE 3 ······································· 83 1999 PASSAGE 4 ······································· 86 2006 TEXT 4 ··············································· 9 2005 TEXT 1 ·············································· 10 2005 TEXT 2 ·············································· 12 2005 TEXT 3 ·············································· 14 2005 TEXT 4 ·············································· 16 2004 TEXT 1 ·············································· 19 2004 TEXT 2 ·············································· 20 2004 TEXT 3 ·············································· 22 2004 TEXT 4 ·············································· 24 2003 TEXT 1 ·············································· 27 2003 TEXT 2 ·············································· 30 2003 TEXT 3 ·············································· 33 2003 TEXT 4 ·············································· 36 2002 TEXT 1 ·············································· 39 2002 TEXT 2 ·············································· 42 2002 TEXT 3 ·············································· 45 2002 TEXT 4 ·············································· 47 2001 PASSAGE 1 ······································· 50 2001 PASSAGE 2 ······································· 53 2001 PASSAGE 3 ······································· 56 2001 PASSAGE 4 ······································· 59 2001 PASSAGE 5 ······································· 61 2000 PASSAGE 1 ······································· 64 2000 PASSAGE 2 ······································· 67 2000 PASSAGE 3 ······································· 70 2000 PASSAGE 4 ······································· 72 2000 PASSAGE 5 ······································· 75

1999 PASSAGE 5 ······································· 89 1998 PASSAGE 1 ······································· 92 1998 PASSAGE 2 ······································· 95 1998 PASSAGE 3 ······································· 97 1998 PASSAGE 4 ····································· 100 1998 PASSAGE 5 ····································· 103 1997 PASSAGE 1 ····································· 105 1997 PASSAGE 2 ····································· 108 1997 PASSAGE 3 ····································· 110 1997 PASSAGE 4 ····································· 113 1997 PASSAGE 5 ····································· 116 1996 PASSAGE 1 ····································· 118 1996 PASSAGE 2 ····································· 120 1996 PASSAGE 3 ····································· 122 1996 PASSAGE 4 ····································· 125 1996 PASSAGE 5 ····································· 128 1995 PASSAGE 1 ····································· 129 1995 PASSAGE 2 ····································· 131 1995 PASSAGE 3 ····································· 133 1995 PASSAGE 4 ····································· 136 1995 PASSAGE 5 ····································· 138 1994 PASSAGE 1 ····································· 140 1994 PASSAGE 2 ····································· 142 1994 PASSAGE 3 ····································· 144 1994 PASSAGE 4 ····································· 146 1994 PASSAGE 5 ····································· 148

2006年黑暗版序:

想了半天,都不知道用怎么一个字为这次的修订写点什么,最后还是用序这个字。作家味了一点,呵呵。不过花了这么多功夫,终于看着自己和几位同僚的结晶出品,心里真的还是非常高兴和得意。虽然我们几个的水平有限,但我们已经做到了最好,因此我们还是感到快乐和高兴的。 这次的修订主要是围绕着刚刚过去的一次考试,即2006年的研英阅读为主修订的,兼对以前的内容进行重新编配。老实说,做这么大的一个工程,真的是感到诚惶诚恐,生怕砸了以前黑暗版的良好招牌。但既然做了,丑媳妇总要见公婆的,还是拿出来让大家看看,希望大家能指出这次的不足之处,以便我们能更好的修改,最终的目的是我们共同进步。 修订内容:(2006年研英阅读)

重点词汇,难句分析由研英版主zhuqx969完成 答案详解有研英版主持人jojolucan完成

全文翻译由研英斑竹bopsam_03和开心灌水乐园斑竹ymhd2002共同完成 内容校订由bopsam_03完成

版式编排由考研区首版zhuhui0991完成 并感谢所有沪江研友的大力支持 祝所有的研友2007梦想成真

Keep your face to sunshine, you can never see the shadow

Bopsam_03 2006.4.7第n+1次修订

INTRODUCTION

想了半天,还是写下了Introduction这个词,之前的黑暗版guangxian做的很成功,因此在这次的修订过程中有着很大的压力。几经易手,终于在今天暂时定稿,由于水平有限,在这个版本中难免还是有错误,希望大家指出。

●资料重新进行了排版,收集了1994-2005考研,英语阅读真题56篇,其中,1993-2003年的未做任何改动,新增了2004和2005年的内容。

●新增的2005年“难句解析”、“试题解析”、“全文翻译”选自新华出版社的《历年考研英语真题解析及复习思路》,其中2005年的26题答案没有选择此书所给答案,而是选择了C

●2005年阅读真题的第一篇和第二篇“重点词汇”由沪江荣誉版主henzhanzhao原创而成,2004年的四篇真题和2005年的第三篇和第四篇由沪江laoshenmo完成。

祝各位2006年考研顺利!

Impossible is nothing

Zhuhui0991

2005年8月1日第N次修订

b

一本书最后写成却被安放在最前面的部分叫“前言”。 为使读者既不浪费宝贵时间,又能全面把握本资料以运用于考研复习,前言写成“凡例”形式。

● 本资料正文收全1994-2003考研英语阅读真题48篇,排

列以年份为序,2003年Text 1为第1篇,1994年Passage 5为第48篇;附录收2004年阅读真题4篇。

● 正文所有文章自2003年7月起连载于 沪江论坛 考研版,

历时三月完成,随后不断修订,总耗时逾300小时。 ● 正文每篇文章由“真题原文”、“重点词汇”、“难句解析”、

“试题解析”、“全文翻译”五部分组成,因个人能力所限,各部分内容基本选编自国内公开出版的考研与非考研类英语学习参考书。

● “真题原文”1/2为网上原有电子版校对而成,另1/2为笔

者照书录入,以人大版《2004年全国硕士研究生入学考试英语历年真题解析及复习思路》为底本,参其余多本真题书而成,可能是目前网上错误率最低的阅读真题文本。 ● “重点词汇”之单词解析选自笔者的英文单词记忆研究笔

记,是本资料中唯一的原创作品,以词根词缀为主、其它各种方法为辅记忆中高级英文单词是笔者的一贯主张。 ● “重点词汇”之例句录自辽宁人民版《广征博引英汉词

典》、河南人民版《点击智慧——新世纪魔鬼词典》等近20本书,涉及考研核心词汇1500个,例句翻译按笔者之粗浅理解略有修改,80%例句句型适合议论文写作。 ● “难句解析”选编自周雷的世图版《考研英语阅读:真题

语言注释与难句突破》2004年版。

● “试题解析”之2003年、2002年解析选编自高教版《全

国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语考试分析(非英语专业)》2004年版,其余录自张锦芯的人大版《历年研究生入学考试英语统考真题详解》2003年版。

● “全文翻译”除改正个别印刷错误外,完全按照前述之人

大版《真题解析及复习思路》录入。

● “附录1”选编自航空工业版“考试虫”《洞穿考研——硕

士研究生英语入学考试历年实考试题解析》。

● 转载请保持本资料完整性,任何疑问、批评与建议请点击

此处 发表,谢谢!

祝各位2005年考研顺利!

It is impossible to love and be wise.

— Francis Bacon

GUANGXIAN

2003年国庆前夜于恶人谷 2004年10月12日第N次修订 ---------------------------------------------- 纵横江湖二十馀载 杀尽仇寇 败尽英雄

天下更无抗手 无可奈何 惟隐居深谷 以雕为友

呜呼 生平求一敌手而不可得 诚寂寥难堪也

In spite of “endless talk of difference,”American society is an amazing machine for homogenizing people. There is “the democratizing uniformity of dress and discourse, and the casualness and absence of consumption “launched by the 19th——century department stores that offered “vast arrays of goods in an elegant atmosphere. Instead of intimate shops catering to a knowledgeable elite. “these were stores “anyone could enter, regardless of class or background. This turned shopping into a public and democratic act. “The mass media, advertising and sports are other forces for homogenization.

Immigrants are quickly fitting into this common culture, which may not be altogether elevating but is hardly poisonous. Writing for the National Immigration Forum, Gregory Rodriguez reports that today’s immigration is neither at unprecedented level nor resistant to assimilation. In 1998 immigrants were 9.8 percent of population; in 1900, 13.6 percent .In the 10 years prior to 1990, 3.1 immigrants arrived for every 1,000 residents; in the 10years prior to 1890, 9.2 for every 1,000. Now, consider three indices of assimilation–language, home ownership and intermarriage.

The 1990 Census revealed that “a majority of immigrants from each of the fifteen most common countries of origin spoke English?well?or?very well?after ten years of residence. “The children of immigrants tend to be bilingual and proficient in English. “By the third generation, the original language is lost in the majority of immigrant families. “Hence the description of America as a“graveyard”for languages. By 1996 foreign–born immigrants who had arrived before 1970 had a homeownership rate of 75.6 percent, higher than the 69.8 percent rate among native-born Americans.

Foreign-born Asians and Hispanics “have higher rates of intermarriage than do U.S–born whites and blacks. “By the third generation, one third of Hispanic women are married to non-Hispanics, and 41 percent of Asian–American women are married to non-Asians.

Rodriguez notes that children in remote villages around the world are fans of superstars like Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks, yet “some Americans fear that immigrant living within the United States remain somehow immune to the nation’s assimilative power.”

Are there divisive issues and pockets of seething anger in America? Indeed. It is big enough to have a bit of everything. But particularly when viewed against America?s turbulent past, today?s social induces hardly suggest a dark and deteriorating social environment.

21.The word “homogenizing”(Line 2, Paragraph 1) most probably means

[A] identifying [B] associating [C] assimilating [D] monopolizing

22. According to the author, the department stores of the 19th century

[A] played a role in the spread of popular culture. [B] became intimate shops for common consumers. [C] satisfied the needs of a knowledgeable elite.

[D] owed its emergence to the culture of consumption

23.The text suggests that immigrants now in the U.S. [A] are resistant to homogenization.

[B] exert a great influence on American culture. [C] are hardly a threat to the common culture. [D] constitute the majority of the population.

24. Why are Arnold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks mentioned in Paragraph 5? [A] To prove their popularity around the world. [B] To reveal the public‘s fear of immigrants. [C] To give examples of successful immigrants.

[D] To show the powerful influence of American culture.

25.In the author’s opinion, the absorption of immigrants into American society is [A] rewarding. [B] successful. [C] fruitless. [D] harmful.

重点词汇:

homogenize:/ h?'m?d??naiz/ vt. cause to

1

become equal or homogeneous as by mixing;均质化,使(某物)成分均匀

【形】 homogeneous a. 由同类部分组成的 【名】 homogeneity n. 同种,同质

【构词】词头:homo- 同、相同 如 homophone n. 同音异形词; homosexual a. 同性恋的

democratize:?/ di'm?kr?taiz/ vt. become (more) democratic; of nations 使民主化

【例】democratize the administration of an organization 使一组织的管理民主化

【名】 democracy n. 民主、民主政治,民主制度; democrat n. 民主主义者;(Democrat指美国民主党党员或其拥护者) democratization n. 民主化

【形】democratic a. 民主的,民主政治的;民主作风的,平等的

discourse: [ dis'k?:s, 'disk?:s ] n. lengthy or serious treatment of a subject in speech or writing 论文、演讲 vi. talk、preach or lecture about sth(usu at length)(通常长篇大论的)论说、宣扬或讲授某事物

【例】The speaker discoursed knowledgeably on a variety of subjects 演讲者头头是道的论述了一系列问题。

intimate: [ 'intimit ] a. having or being a very

closely or friendly relationship 亲密的,私人的,秘密的; private and personal 私人的,个人的;

vt make sth known to sb exp discreetly or indirectly 将某事透露给某人,(尤其指谨慎的或间接的)暗示、示意 【例】She has intimated to us that she no longer wishes to be considered for the post 她已向我们透露希望不再考虑让她担任该职。

【习】be/get on intimate terms with sb (渐渐)熟悉某人并关系密切

【名】intimation n. 示意、暗示

cater: [ 'keit? ] v. provide food or services,esp. at social functions 备办食物或服务(尤其指社交方面);投合,迎合

【用法】 ~ for sb/sth 由某人/某事物提供、迎合 (即主语必须是被用来迎合sb/sth的那个东西)

~ to sth 满足某种需要或要求(即主语必须是发起迎合动作的主体)

【例】TV must cater for many different tastes 电视节目必须迎合各种人的爱好。

Newspapers catering to people?s love of scandal 迎合人们爱看丑闻消息的报纸 【名】catering n. 承办酒席(的行为或行业) caterer n. 承办酒席的人

elevate: [ '?????it ] v. lift up,raise to a higher place or rank 举起,提拔 ; make the mind or morals better or more educated 使思想或道德更好,更有修养 【例】 He has been elevated to the peerage 他已升为贵族 The teacher hoped to elevate the minds of her young pupils by reading them religious stories. 教师希望给小学生读宗教故事来提高他们的修养.

【形】elevated a. 好的,高尚的 elevating a. 提高思想道德的,引人向上的

【名】elevation n. 提高、被提高,高度(尤指海拔),建筑物正视图

unprecedented: [ ?????????????? ] a. 空前的

【例】Science and technology have come to pervade every aspect of our lives and, as a result, society is changing at a speed which is quite unprecedented. 科学和技术已经开始渗透了我们生活的各个领域;结果,社会

2

正以空前的速度改变着

resistant: [????????????] a. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection)抵抗的,反抗的

【例】This new type of infection is resistant to antibiotics. 这种新的传染病对抗菌素有抗药性。 【名】resistance n. 抵抗,对抗

难句分析:

①Immigrants are quickly fitting into this common culture, which may not be altogether elevating but is hardly poisonous.

▲分析:该句话是由一个主句加一个非限定性定语从句组成,immigrants做主语,fit做谓语,culture做宾语,which引导非限定性从句。

翻译:移民们很快适应了这个主流文化,他们也许总共也不能为这个文化增色多少,但也不会有害于它的。

②Rodriguez not that children in remote villages around world are fans of superstars like Amold Schwarzenegger and Garth Brooks, yet “some Americans fear that immigrant living within the United States remain somehow immune to the nation?s assimilative power.”

▲分析:这是个复杂句,yet把它分成两部分,前后是转折关系。前半部分是个简单句;后半部分由that引导了一个宾语从句。

翻译:罗得里格斯岛那些在世界各地偏僻村庄的的孩子们也许并非都是诸如Amold Schwarzenegger 和Garth Brooks等明星的星迷,然而一些美国人害怕住在美国的移民或多或少的对这个国家的同化力量保持免疫。 答案分析: 21.

参考答案:C。homogenizing是homogenize的动名词形式,本意是:vi.均质化vt.使均匀。即同一化。在第一段可以看出,文章是说明美国社会的民主化和其巨大的亲和力,因此在American society is an amazing machine for homogenizing people这句话中,将homogenizing翻译成吸引,吸收最贴切。然后观察四个选项,A选项是identifying,意思是:识别, 鉴别, 把...和...看成一样。与文章没有联系,排除。B选项associating是比较强的干扰项,其意思是:vt.使发生联系, 使联合vi.交往, 结交。如果能引申为团结的意思的话,与文章倒是有点关系,但是根据最优选项的原则,此选项也不能入选。C选项assimilateing是吸收的意思,最符合原文的观点,即吸收以融为一体的意思。因此C选项入选。D选项monopolizing的意思是独占,垄断的意思,与原文没有联系,排除。

22..

参考答案:A。该题目定位到第一段的这几句话:launched by the 19th –century department stores that offered ‘vast arrays of goods in an elegant atmosphere. Instead of intimate shops catering to a knowledgeable elite.” these were stores “anyone could enter, regardless of class or background. This turned shopping into a public and democratic act.”大体意思是说,商店不再只是属于那些有见识的精英们了,而成为一种任何人都可以进入,不管你的社会地位或背景的地方。最重要的是最后一句,说商店使购物成为一种公众的,民主的活动。因此,商店在普及文化中扮演着重要的角色。此中的文化也可以具体到消费文化。联系A选项:商店在普及通俗文化中发挥着作用。因此A入选。B选项属于比较强的干扰项,主要是intimate这个词的用法不够理解。intimate的意思是adj.亲密的, 隐私的vt.宣布, 明白表示。在文章的意思应该是私人的意思。由原句Instead of intimate shops catering

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇三:考研英语阅读真题解析和全文翻译(1994-2005)

考研英语阅读真题解析和全文翻译

(2005-1994) Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one. Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as ―all too human‖, with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it is all too monkey, as well.

The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of ―goods and services‖ than males.

Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de waal's study. The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers) So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber .Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to induce resentment in a female capuchin.

The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a co-operative, group-living species, Such co-operation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated. Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone, Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group. However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by

[A]. posing a contrast.

[B]. justifying an assumption.

[C]. making a comparison.

[D]. explaining a phenomenon.

22. The statement ―it is all too monkey‖ (Last line, paragraph l) implies that

[A]. monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals.

[B]. resenting unfairness is also monkeys' nature.

[C]. monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other.

[D]. no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions.

23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are

[A]. more inclined to weigh what they get.

[B]. attentive to researchers' instructions.

[C]. nice in both appearance and temperament.

[D]. more generous than their male companions

24. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys

[A]. prefer grapes to cucumbers.

[B]. can be taught to exchange things.

[C]. will not be co-operative if feeling cheated.

[D]. are unhappy when separated from others.

25. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

[A]. Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions.

[B]. Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.

[C]. Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.

[D]. Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild.

核心词汇:

a fat pay rise 涨得很高的工资

vanish (消失,不复存在)The wonderful vanished into thin air.美梦化作泡影I thought it would rain, but the clouds have vanished and it's a fine day.我原以为天要下雨的,可是云消失了,是个好天。[巧记]van=empty空+ish形容词后缀:倾向于。

colleague (同事,同僚)David is a colleague of mine.戴维是我的同事[巧记]col=con共同+leag=leg选+ue→共同被选出的。[辨] companion (同伴,共事者)即com一起+pan面包+ion→一起吃面包→谋生的人。 A dog is a faithfull companyion. 狗是忠实的伙伴

reputation (名气,名声,名望)a man of good reputation名誉很好的人Live up to one‘s reputation.不负盛名[巧记]re再一,重新+put思考+ation。

slack (懈怠,懒散)slack work马虎的工作 slack laws 不完善的法律 Bussiness is slack at this season.这一季节生意萧条 The tennis net hung slack.网球的网松悬着[记:谐音]怪物―史莱克‖是―懒散‖的。

outrage (暴行,伤害,激怒)。 An outrage against justice.对正义的严重损害 Members of Parliament were outraged by the news of bomb outrages in the country.国内发生了炸弹暴力事件的消息引起了国会议员的义愤 [巧记]out过度+rage动怒→―出离愤怒了‖

all to human 人所特有的→人性

underling (潜在的,含蓄的) There are underlying similarities between all human beings.人与人之间有内在相似之处 The underlying theme of the novel is very serious.小说内在的主题很严肃[巧记]under(下面)+

assumption (假定;承担;呈现) The theory is based on a series of wrong assumptions.这一理论是以一系列错误的设想为根据的。Their assumption that their project under way was something entirely new proved to be untrue.他们以为他们正在进行的课题是崭新的,事实证明不是那样。 [记]assume(假设)

grievance /(抱怨,不平,怨愤) to have a grievance against sb.抱怨某人He extravagantce give him a sense of grievance.他的挥霍使他感到不满[巧记]griev=heavy沉重+ance。

capuchin monkey 僧帽猴 一种原产于美洲的卷尾猴(sapajou),头上有类似风帽的一镞头发

good-natured (和蔼的,和善的) 又如:mean-natured 情绪性的 sweet-natured 性格温和的

creature(人, 动物, 傀儡, 创造物) She was a poor creature.她曾是个可怜的女人。[巧记]creat(创造)+ure(尾缀)

tardily (缓慢)形容词:拖拉的。[记:谐音]邋―遢地‖是由于―拖拉‖造成的。

counterpart (对应的人或物) 即counter相反+part部分=―对应的部分‖→对音的人或物。The Red Cross Society of China and its Icelandic counterpart. 中国红十字会和冰岛红十字会 Canada‘s Prime Minister is the counterpart of the U.S. president. 加拿大总理相当于美国总统。参见2000年 Passage 4 。

candidate (候选人,求职者)Masteral candidate 考研人 [巧记]cand白,

发光+id+ate→白色的人→候选人。

in exchange for (作为[对…的]交换[或替代])[巧记]exchange=ex出+change换→换出

token

(象征的东西,代币) Tears are queer tokens of happiness. 眼泪是快乐的一种奇特的表示We shook hands as a token of our friendship.我们握手,以表示我们的友谊。

slice (薄片,切片;一份,部分)a slice of bread一片面包 a slice of good luck.一份好运 a book to amuse you, not to give you a slice of life. 一本供你消遣的书,并不是告诉你一段实际生活 He sliced his fingers.他用刀切伤了手指。

adjoining (毗连的)The twins have adjoining rooms. 双胞胎的房间是挨着的 [巧记]ad向+join加入,结合+ing行为结果。

chamber(房间, 议院)chamber of the heart 心室 In Britain the upper chamber or parliament is the House of Lords, the lower the House of Commons.英国的上议院或国会是贵族议院,下议院是众议院。

in return for (作为[对…的]交换[报答,回报]) He give her some roses in return for her kindnesss.他送她一些玫瑰以报答她的好意

markedly (显著的,明显的) a woman of marked intelligence 聪明过人的女子 Tuition at American universities varies markedly depending on the type of instituation and its endowment. 美国各大学的学费有显著差别,这取决于学校的类别和所得到的捐赠基金 [巧记]marked(有记号的, 显著的)

luxury (奢侈品,华贵) 即lux光亮→豪华+ury。Luxurious adj.豪华舒适的 luxuryiate v.纵情享受 to luxuryiate in the warm,spring sunshine.尽情享受春日温暖的阳光 Cream cakes are no long a luxury.奶油蛋糕再也不是奢侈品了。

reluctant(不愿的,勉强的)Suggestion systems can work — don't be reluctant to use them.建议制度是有效的——不要不愿使用它们 She was very reluctant to admit the truth. 她很不情愿地承认了这事实。[巧记]re反复+luct=lect拾,捡+ant形容词后缀→应为觉得―不称心‖,所以 ―反复拾捡‖→但最后还是―不情愿的,勉强的‖。参见1994 Passage 5 。 toss ([常与to, away, aside, out连用]扔,抛) 他轻而易举地写出了几行诗They tossed the ball to each other.他们把球互相扔来扔去。

induce (劝诱,促使)What induced you to do such a stupid thing? 是什么促使你作出这等蠢事来的人 One of these pills is guaranteed to induce sleep. 这些药丸只要一粒就能使人安眠Too much food induces sleepiness.吃得过饱会产生睡意。[巧记]in往内+duce=duct引导→―步步为营,诱敌深入‖。 Presence

resentment (愤恨,怨恨)He was filled with resentment at the way one has been treated. 他因受到如此对待而满腔怨恨Resentment edged his reply.岔恨使他的回答非常尖锐。[巧记]re去掉,相反+sent感觉+ment→负面的感觉→怨恨。

emotions

(激情,情绪,情感) The speaker appealed to our emotions rather to our minds. 演讲者激发了我们的情感而不是启发我们的思考 Love, hatred, and grief are emotion.爱、恨、悲伤都是感情。

righteous (正当的,正直的,公正的) righteous indignation义愤 Don‘t adopt that righteous tone of voice! 别用那种一本正经的腔调说话。(贬)[巧记]right 正确的+eous 。

indignation (愤慨, 义愤)indignation against a handful of terrorists. 对一小撮恐怖分子的义愤[巧记]in往里+dig挖+nation民族→挖民族→比挖祖坟还难受→能不愤慨吗?[记]形容词:indignant

preserve

(保存,保护,保护区) preserve one‘s eyesight 保护视力 God preserve us! 上帝保佑我们吧 The fishing in this stretch of river is strictly preserved. 此河段严禁外人捕鱼The Town Council spent a lot of money to preserve the old castle and other places of historic interest.市政委员会花了不少钱来维修那座古城堡和其它古迹。

reward (报酬,奖金;值得) One reward of my job is meeting people. 我在工作中的收获是能认识许多人 As well as the stained glass,the carring on the roof also reward attention.屋顶上的雕刻和彩色玻璃一样值得注意 It's a reward for virtue.那是对美德的回报。

abundantly (丰富地,充裕地) He‘s made his views abundantly clear.他已经充分表明自己的观点 [记]名词:abundance 形容词:abundant

evolve (逐渐形成,进化) The American constitution was planed;the British constitution evolved.美国宪法是精心制订的,英国宪法是约定俗成的 The developmental history of the society tells us that man has evolved from the ape.

社会发展史告诉我们人是从类人猿进化来的。

as yet 至今为止

stem from (源于… 有…造成) a talented art critic stemming from a painter. 出生画家,富有才干的评论家

ancestor (祖先,祖宗) His ancestors had come to England as refugess.他的祖先来到英国的时候是难民[巧记]an=ante前+cest=cess行走,前进+or→走在前面的人→祖先。 [比较记忆] descendant 作―后裔,子孙‖解,而作―下降(的)‖解,一般拼成descendent

incline([常与to, towards连用]倾向于,趋于)I incline to fatness.我有些发胖。

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇四:2005年考研英语传统阅读2005t1 精读解析(带单词版)

阅读精读强化 2005年Text1

Everybody loves a fat pay rise. Yet pleasure at your own can vanish if you learn that a colleague has been given a bigger one.

每个人都希望拥有一份丰厚的薪酬。然而,当你获悉你的一个同事比你薪酬高的时候,你的快乐可能会消失

Indeed, if he has a reputation for slacking, you might even be outraged. Such behaviour is regarded as “all too human,” with the underlying assumption that other animals would not be capable of this finely developed sense of grievance. But a study by Sarah Brosnan and Frans de Waal of Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, which has just been published in Nature, suggests that it all too monkey, as well.

事实上,如果他的名声不怎么好,你甚至可能会发怒。这样的行为被认为是所有人共有的。作为一种基本的假设,人们认为其他动物不具有如此精致发展的感觉。但是,乔治亚州亚特兰大诶默利大学的萨拉·布罗森和弗兰斯·德·瓦尔最近公开发表的研究报告认为,猴子也拥有嫉妒心。

The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, cooperative creatures, and they share their food tardily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of “goods and services” than males. Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan’s and Dr. de waal’s study.

研究者们研究了雌性棕色僧帽猴的行为。它们看起来很可爱。它们是性情温和,富有协作精神的生物,它们慢慢地分享他们的食物,总之,和它们的对照物女人类似,它们较雄性僧帽猴倾向于花费更多注意力在权衡“商品和服务”的价值上。这种特质使得它们成为了布罗森博士和瓦尔博士研究的完美候选目标。

The researchers spent two years teaching their monkeys to exchange tokens for food. Normally, the monkeys were happy enough to exchange pieces of rock for slices of cucumber. However, when two monkeys were placed in separate but adjoining chambers, so that each could observe what the other was getting in return for its rock, their behaviour became markedly different.

研究者们花费了两年的时间教它们的猴子们使用代币交换食物,一般地,这些猴子会十分开心的使用几片石块交换几片黄瓜切片。然而,当两只猴子被分开在毗连的笼子里面,以便让他们可以观察到其他猴子使用它们的石块换回什么东西的时候,它们的行为变得非常的不同。

In the world of capuchins grapes are luxury goods (and much preferable to cucumbers). So when one monkey was handed a grape in exchange for her token, the second was reluctant to hand hers over for a mere piece of cucumber. And if one received a grape without having to provide her token in exchange at all, the other either tossed her own token at the researcher or out of the chamber, or refused to accept the slice of cucumber.

在僧帽猴看来,葡萄是奢侈品(并且比黄瓜好得多)。因此,当一只猴子使用代币换到了一颗葡萄,第二个猴子就不会情愿用代币仅仅换黄瓜片,并且,如果一只猴子收到了一个葡萄却根本没有支付代币,另外一个或者用它自己的代币投掷向调查者,或者将之扔出笼子外面,

抑或拒绝接受黄瓜片。

Indeed, the mere presence of a grape in the other chamber (without an actual monkey to eat it) was enough to reduce resentment in a female capuchin.

事实上,如果仅仅让僧帽猴是看到葡萄在其他笼子里(并没有一个现实的猴子去吃掉它)的做法就足够降低一个雌性僧帽猴的愤恨了。

The researches suggest that capuchin monkeys, like humans, are guided by social emotions. In the wild, they are a cooperative, group living species. Such cooperation is likely to be stable only when each animal feels it is not being cheated.

研究者们认为,僧帽猴和人类一样,被社会情绪所引导。在自然界中,它们是团结协作的群居物种,这种协作可能只有在每一个动物感觉他们没有被欺骗时才是牢靠的。

Feelings of righteous indignation, it seems, are not the preserve of people alone. Refusing a lesser reward completely makes these feelings abundantly clear to other members of the group.

公平感的义愤情绪,看来不是人类所特有的,拒绝较低的酬劳完全地把这些感觉充分地呈献给团队中的其他成员。

However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is, as yet, an unanswered question.

然而,是否这种公平感仅仅涉及人类和僧帽猴,是否它起源于3500万年前的共同的祖先物种,这些问题到现在为止都是难以回答的。

21. In the opening paragraph, the author introduces his topic by ________.

[A] posing a contrast

[B] justifying an assumption

[C] making a comparison

[D] explaining a phenomenon

22. The statement “it is all too monkey” (Last line, paragraph l) implies that ________.

[A] monkeys are also outraged by slack rivals

[B] resenting unfairness is also monkeys’ nature

[C] monkeys, like humans, tend to be jealous of each other

[D] no animals other than monkeys can develop such emotions

23. Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are ________.

[A] more inclined to weigh what they get

[B] attentive to researchers’ instructions

[C] nice in both appearance and temperament

[D] more generous than their male companions

24. Dr. Brosnan and Dr. de Waal have eventually found in their study that the monkeys ________.

[A] prefer grapes to cucumbers

[B] can be taught to exchange things

[C] will not be cooperative if feeling cheated

[D] are unhappy when separated from others

25. What can we infer from the last paragraph?

[A] Monkeys can be trained to develop social emotions.

[B] Human indignation evolved from an uncertain source.

[C] Animals usually show their feelings openly as humans do.

[D] Cooperation among monkeys remains stable only in the wild.

【单词总结】

1, assumption [?'s?mp??n]

n. 假定;设想;担任;采取

2, indeed [in'di:d]

adv. 的确;实在;真正地;甚至

int. 真的(表示惊讶、怀疑、讽刺等)

3, reputation [,repju'tei??n]

n. 名声,名誉;声望

4, slacking

n. 消解;熟化

v. 松弛(slack的ing形式)

5, outraged ['autreid?id]

v. 使愤怒(outrage的过去式,过去分词)

adj. 义愤填膺的;愤慨的,气愤的

6, underlying [,?nd?'laii?]

adj. 潜在的;根本的;在下面的;优先的

v. 放在?的下面;为?的基础;优先于(underlie的ing形式)

7, finely ['fainli]

adv. 非常地;细微地;美好地;雅致地

8, grievance ['ɡri:v?ns]

n. 不满,不平;委屈;冤情

9, capuchin ['k?pju?in]

n. (天主教的)圣方济会托钵僧

10, cute [kju:t]

adj. 可爱的;漂亮的;聪明的,伶俐的

11, good-natured ['ɡudneit??d]

adj. 和蔼的;温厚的;脾气好的

12, creature ['kri:t??]

n. 动物,生物;人;创造物

13, tardily ['tɑ:dili]

adv. 缓慢地;拖延地

14, counterpart ['kaunt?,pɑ:t]

n. 副本;配对物;极相似的人或物

15, token ['t?uk?n]

n. 表征;代币;记号

adj. 象征的;表意的;作为对某事的保证的

vt. 象征;代表

16, slice [slais]

n. 薄片;部分;菜刀,火铲

vt. 切下;把?分成部分;将?切成薄片

vi. 切开;割破

17, cucumber ['kju:k?mb?]

n. 黄瓜;胡瓜

18, separate ['sep?reit, 'sep?rit]

n. 分开;抽印本

adj. 单独的;分开的

vt. 使分离;使分开;使分居

vi. 分开;隔开;分居

19, markedly ['ma:kidli]

adv. 明显地;显著地;引人注目地

20, grape [ɡreip]

n. 葡萄;葡萄酒;葡萄树;葡萄色

21, luxury ['l?k??ri, 'l?ɡ??ri]

n. 奢侈,奢华;奢侈品;享受

adj. 奢侈的

22, preferable to

更可取的,更好的

23, reluctant [ri'l?kt?nt]

adj. 不情愿的;勉强的;顽抗的

24, toss [t?s, t?:s]

n. 投掷;摇荡;投掷的距离;掷币赌胜负

vt. 投掷;使?不安;突然抬起;使?上下摇动;与?掷币打赌 vi. 辗转;被乱扔;颠簸;掷钱币决定某事

25, refuse [ri'fju:z, ri:-]

n. 垃圾;废物

vi. 拒绝

vt. 拒绝;不愿;抵制

26, at all

(否定句)根本;究竟

27, presence ['prez?ns]

n. 存在;出席;参加;风度;仪态

28, reduce [ri'dju:s, -'du:s]

vi. 减少;缩小;归纳为

vt. 减少;降低;使处于;把?分解

29, resentment [ri'zentm?nt]

n. 愤恨,怨恨

30, emotion [i'm?u??n]

n. 情感;情绪

31, species ['spi:?i:z, -si:z]

n. [生物] 物种;种类

adj. 物种上的

32, cheated [t?i:t]

vt. 欺骗;骗取

vi. 欺骗;作弊

n. 欺骗,作弊;骗子

33, righteous ['rait??s]

adj. 正义的;正直的;公正的

34, indignation [,indiɡ'nei??n]

n. 愤慨;愤怒;义愤

35, preserve [pri'z?:v]

n. 保护区;禁猎地;加工成的食品

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇五:2005年考研英语阅读理解突破

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇六:新东方2005年考研英语阅读手记

新东方2005年考研英语阅读手记

主讲:周雷

一. 考研阅读的基本情况:

1. 重要性:“考研成败在于英语,英语成败在于阅读”——阅读40分,应拿到26分以上

2. 题型:见九大题型解题思路详解

3. 文章特点:三个特色

⑴在内容上,分为三大类别:

① 科学即自然科学:出题不多,主要涉及医学、生物学,科学史等

② 社会科学:强调时效性

③ 人文科学:出题不多,主要涉及文学评论、杂文、散文、essay等

从历年真题上看,出题以社会科学为主,特别强调时效性

社会科学涉及的领域:经济学、心理学、教育学、传播学等

一定不涉及的领域:政治科学、国际政治

⑵在题材上,大纲要求四类文章:议论文、说明文、记叙文、应用文

从历年真题上看,出题以议论文和说明文为主

说明文:主要是科学类文章,要求抓住说明对象

议论文:主要是以第一人称议论,要求抓住作者观点

⑶在语言文化上,以美国英语和文化为主

4. 大纲对于阅读理解的基本要求

⑴ 阅读速度:每分钟60个英文单词(要求进行close reading——精细阅读)

⑵ 理解文章主旨要意

⑶ 理解文章具体信息(要求理解长难句)

⑷ 理解文章的概念性含义(concept)

⑸ 能进行相关的判断、推理和引申(imply infer 推理题的答案为原文概念的转述)

⑹ 能根据上下文推测生词的词意

⑺ 理解文章的总体结构

⑻ 理解作者的意图、观点和态度

⑼ 能够区分论点和论据

二. 考研阅读的整体解题思路:三步走

1. 第一步:通读全文,抓住中心。(不推荐采用先看题目后读文章的做法)

在此过程中,注意把握三个阅读原则:

⑴原则一:1∶1原则(通读时间与做题时间对等)

⑵原则二:首段原则(不要怕重复和回读)首段的作用:①中心段 ②抛砖引玉

⑶原则三:首末句原则,即除首段和末段,其余各段的首末句一定要读懂,其他各句正常阅读

2. 第二步:仔细审题,返回原文。

3. 第三步:重叠选项,得出答案。具体来讲,可以设原文意思为A,选项意思为B

若A=B,则B为正确答案;

若A、B不相关,则B不为正确答案,即原文没有提到的,一定不是答案;

若B为A的反面,即B与A矛盾,则B不为正确答案;

若A的内容包含B,则B为正确答案;

若B的内容包含A,则B不为正确答案,属于扩大范围的错误;

若A、B有交集不重叠,则B不为正确答案。

必须记住:选一个选项应有选的理由,不选一个选项也应有不选的理由。

三. 宏观阅读技巧:

1. 一种文章模式:花开两朵,各表一枝。即在文章开始提出两个核心概念,随后分段论述。这种文章关键

2. 一种文章模式:出现独句段,即一个句子单独成段。特别是当其出现在文章最开始或结束的时候,它一

般是文章的中心思想。

3. 一种文章模式:层层递进。文章整体或几个段落论述的问题有从抽象到具体、从初级到高级、从简单到

复杂的过程,且各段开始都出现递进词。这种文章的中心或几段的核心观点必然出现在层层递进各段的最后一段。

4. 一种文章模式:问题答案型(question-answer)。文章第一段中出现一个问题,在随后各段提供该问题

的答案。这种文章的中心就是该问题最直接最主要的答案。

5. 时文的特点:⑴耸人听闻,吸引眼球 ⑵貌似客观 ⑶抛砖引玉

一般来说,时文的中心会出现在首段的最后一句话或第二段的首句。

四. 微观阅读技巧:

1. 句子中的标点符号的作用:

⑴ 句号:用来分割句子。

⑵ 逗号:两个逗号之间或一个逗号之后,是一个补充说明成分,可以先不看。

⑶ 冒号:冒号前后是从抽象到具体的过程,后面进一步具体说明前面的内容。

⑷ 分号:分号前后是并列关系。包括结构上并列和语义上并列两种。

⑸ 破折号:两个破折号之间或一个破折号之后,是补充说明成分,可以先不看。

⑹ 引号:一种是引用别人观点,其作用要么是作为支持的观点,要么作为批判的对象;另一

种是说反话,表示反语。

⑺ 括号:括号内的内容起补充说明或解释词义的作用。

2. 长难句解析方法:先抓主干,找出复杂句最核心的成分,再层层扩展。

3. 类比关系:

⑴ 可以把类比看作特殊的例证

⑵ 识别一下,作者把什么比喻成了什么

4. 常见的长难句种的基本语法结构:

⑴ 形式主语或宾语

⑵ 强调结构

⑶ 非限定性定语从句

⑷ 同位语从句

⑸ 倒装结构

⑹ 虚拟语气

⑺ 省略

5. 虚拟语气:表达一种反事实假设。

例如:If you were/had come here yesterday, you would have seen that famous professor.

作者用虚拟语气一般表示建议、态度和观点。

五. 九大题型解题思路详解:

1. 细节事实题:

⑴ 标志:

①题干中明确提到的时间、地点、人物等细节信息

②针对文章中的一句或几句发问

③题干和选项之间是因果关系

⑵ 做题的关键在于:返回原文

①根据题干中的时间、地点、人物返回原文

②根据出题顺序返回原文(60%的准度)

③根据题干中的重点词或其同义词返回原文(如名词、动词、形容词,70%的准度)

④找原文中的难句定位,一般来说,难句都是出题点。

⑶ 迷惑人的手段:

②颠倒因果

③扩大范围

④常识判断

2. 例证题:

⑴ 标志:case example illustration demonstration exemplify demonstrate illustrate

⑵ 做题的关键在于:是否能找到例子支持的论点,而不在于能否看懂例子

⑶ 做题的步骤:

①首先返回原文定位该例子

②然后80%向上、20%向下搜索该例子支持的论点

③在四个选项中寻找与找到的论点表达最一致、意思最接近的一个才是正确答案

3. 词汇题:

⑴ 标志:在题干中明确指出原文中某处的单词或词组,要求辨别其意思

⑵ 做题的关键在于:该单词本身并不重要,重要的是该单词的上下文

⑶ 如果该单词认识,并不超出大纲,则其字面意思必然不是正确答案,其正确答案是根据上下文推测的一个更加深刻的含义

⑷ 做题的方法:可以使用两种方法从上下文进行推理:

①代入替换法

②在上下文中寻找同词性的词或词组

4. 句子理解题:

⑴ 标志:在题干中明确指出原文中的一句话,要求理解其意思

⑵ 做题的关键在于:返回原文对出题的句子进行语法解析,要精确理解其涵义

⑶ 做此类题目时重要的并不是上下文,而是句子本身

⑷ 正确答案与原句之间是一种同义关系,其中没有任何推理过程

5. 指代题:

⑴ 标志:在题干中明确指出原文中某处的指代词,要求辨别其指代关系。

常考的指代词有:it that one

⑵ 做题的步骤:

①首先返回原文定位该指代词,并且90%向上、10%向下搜索其指代的词、词组或句子

②然后在四个选项中找出与所找到的词、词组或句子意思最接近的一个作为答案

6. 推理题:

⑴ 标志:关键词:infer imply

⑵ 整体思路:

①绝大多数推理题是原文意思的同义表达,正确答案与原文之间没有任何推理关系

②做题时可以寻找四个选项中三错一对的关系

⑶ 如果四个选项中有两个或两个以上的选项都是成立的推理步骤,那么与原文意思最接近、所用推理最少的选项即是正确答案

7. 作者态度题:

⑴ 标志:关键词:attitude believe deem consider regard

⑵ 作者态度只分为三大类:

①支持、赞同、乐观

②客观、中立

③反对、批评、怀疑、悲观

除此之外,没有其他的作者态度

⑶ 有些选项是固定不能作为正确答案的:indifferent subjective biased puzzling

⑷ 识别作者态度有以下方法:

①找文中带有感情色彩的名次、动词、形容词、副词

②根据作者举的例子判断

8. 判断题:

①which of the following statement is not ture/correct/mentioned?

②All of the following statements are ture /correct/mentioned except?

⑵ 整体思路:

①首先应判断是三错一对还是三对一错

所谓“对”是指符合原文

所谓“错”是指和原文有矛盾,或原文未提及

②每一个选项都应力争返回原文,不能通过印象进行判断

⑶ 特别关注:

①转折处

②最高级

③感情色彩的词(褒贬含义)

9. 主旨题:

⑴ 标志:best title main idea main problem conclusion

⑵ 整体思路:利用宏观阅读技巧做主旨题

⑶ 特别要小心首段、末段陷阱

⑷ 做题的方法:快速作文法:依据选项、快速作文、与原文核对

六. 复习策略和方法:

1. 精读真题:要求做到

标准一:真题中没有任何一个单词是生词

标准二:真题中没有任何一个长句是难句

标准三:真题中每个选项都知道其在原文中的相应出处

复习方法:⑴ 朗读和背诵

⑵ 制作三套卡片: ①单词:正面单词,背面音标及意思

②长难句:正面原句,背面翻译

③精彩表达的积累,用于写作

2. 快速重复背单词:强调背诵的“快”和“重复”

⑴ 要降低一次背诵的期望值,重复是解决遗忘的最好办法

⑵ 背单词不要利用黄金时间和整块时间

3. 定量定范围泛读

⑴ 推荐书目:《大纲》《考试分析》《考研英语阅读理解高分宝典》《考研英语考前冲刺》 ⑵ 推荐刊物:①《China Daily》主要看的版面:business world economy culture opinion

②《21st Century》

③《英语世界》《新东方英语》《经济学家(economist)》《US news and world reports》

⑶ 推荐小说:可以看看海明威的作品

⑷ 推荐语法书:①《中学生英语语法》

②《Cambridge English Grammar》

⑸ 推荐字典:①《牛津高级学习者词典》 《朗文当代英语词典》

②《韦氏大学版词典》

4. 做少量模拟题

⑴ 验证自己在真题中形成的解题思路

⑵ 扩大阅读范围

注意:一定要做错误分析!

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇七:2005年考研英语一真题答案解析

2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语试题答案

Section I Use of English (10 points)

1-5. CBACB 6-10. ADADB 11-15. CADCD 16-20. BCDAB

Section II Reading Comprehension (60 points)

Part A (40 points) 21-25. CBACB 26-30. CDADB 31-35. ACDDA 36-40. BDABC

Part B (10 points) 41-45. ECGFB

Part C (10 points)

46. 电视是创造和传递感情的手段之一。也许在此之前,就加强不同的民族和国家之间的联系而言,电视还从来没有像在最近的欧洲事件中起过如此大的作用。

47. 多媒体集团在欧洲就像在其他地方一样越来越成功了。这些集团把相互关系密切的电视台、电台、报纸、杂志、出版社整合到了一起。

48. 仅这一点就表明在电视行业不是一个容易生存的领域。这个事实通过统计数字一目了然,统计表明在80家欧洲电视网中1989年出现亏损的不少于50%。

49. 创造一个尊重不同文化和传统的“欧洲统一体”绝非易事,需要战略性选择。正是这些文化和传统组成了连接欧洲大陆的纽带。

50. 在应付一个如此规模的挑战过程中,我们可以毫不夸张地说,“团结,我们就会站起来;分裂,我们就会倒下去。”

Section Ⅲ Writing (30 points)

Part A (10 points) A Letter, to Quit

Jun 22, 2005

Dear Mr. Wang,

First of all, please allow me to express my deep sorry to you for my resignation. I do know that this will bring about much trouble to you so that I write to you for my explanation.

I decided to quit for some reasons as follows. To begin with, the job as an editor for the magazine Designs & Fashions is not suitable to me. What’s more, I’m preparing for another degree and I prefer to further my study. Again, I apologize for my resignation to you!

I am looking forward to your early reply.

Yours Sincerely,

Li Ming

Part B (20 points)

A Helpless Father

The picture ironically shows that a pitiable old man in rags is being helplessly kicked off by his three sons and a daughter, who all wear decent clothes. The father’s negligent children are all guarding their home gates lest their old father “roll into” their households. In other words, they four ignore their moral sense of assuming the responsibility for their old father even though they may be all living a satisfying life. That is a painful scene we often encounter in our daily life.

Sad to say, the moral decline of the younger generations may be a rather explosive situation in our modern society. People definitely have their living conditions improved by wider and wider margins, as evidenced by the four children’s decent dressing, but their moral sense still remains sadly unchanged or in some cases becomes dramatically downgrading. Most people might have become too much self-centered, and even worse, they discard the tradition of giving respect to the elderly. They no longer care for their elders, let alone their neighbors or the

disadvantaged; instead they try every means to avoid responsibility for other citizens. When one cares for others, one might even appear stupid or may even be distrusted.

Therefore, we have to take some useful measures to avoid the scene that is mentioned above. We must launch a variety of campaigns about the return to the good tradition of giving help and love the elderly. Moreover, we must appeal to our government to establish some relevant laws to punish those who avoid their duties. The last but not the least, our respect for age is an indication of the progress of human society, as imperatives of traditions require. We sincerely wish that the old man could be welcome to any of the four households, elegantly dressed, and a smile on the face.

2005年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(一)试题答案详解

Section I Use of English

1. C 空格前讲的是,和动物相比,人的嗅觉常被认为不灵敏,空格后讲的是,…这主要是因为,…动物,我们是直立的。由本段首句"人的鼻子是一个被低估的工具"可知,作者并不认同"人的嗅觉没有动物的灵敏"这一有关人类嗅觉的常规观点。由此可推知,空格前后部分存在隐形的转折关系,即作者并不认为人的鼻子不灵敏,只不过因为人是直立的,故正确答案为C项。

2. B 空格所在部分讲的是,这主要是因为,…动物,我们是直立的。因人类是直立的,而动物不是直立的。由此可知,空格处所填单词应表示对比含义,unlike意为"与…不同",符合文意,故选B。

3. A 空格所在部分讲这意味着我们的鼻子…感知在空气中飘过的气味。由上句可知,和动物不同,人类是直立的,由此可知,人的鼻子只能感知在空气中飘过的气味。因此,空格处应填表示"局限"的词。limit和confine都表示"局限",但confine意为"限制",表示限制在一定活动、领域、地域内。limit意为"局限于",表示时间、空间、程度、数量等方面所能或允许达到的最大程度,符合文意,故选A。

4. C 空格所在部分讲的是,…大多数紧贴地面的气味。由上文可知,和动物不同,人类是直立的,人的鼻子只限于感知在空气中飘过的气味。由此可知,人类"不能感知"大多数紧贴地面的气味。catch意为"捕捉",track意为"追踪",显然都不符合文意。ignore意为主观上"忽视",文中并没有体现人们故意忽视地面上的气味,因此,不符合文意。miss意为"错过,未察觉",符合文意,即人的鼻子只限于感知在空气中飘过的气味,"未能察觉到"大多数紧贴地面的气味。

5. B 空格所在部分讲的是,事实上,…,我们对气味非常敏感。由上文可知,人的鼻子只限于感知在空气中飘过的气味,而遗漏了大多数紧贴地面的气味。由此可知空格所在部分和上文间为转折关系。though作副词时,意为"可是",符合文意,故选B项。

6. A 空格所在句讲的是,然而,实际上,我们对气味非常敏感,…我们通常意识不到这一点。显然,空格前后为让步关系,even if意为"即使",符合文意,故选A。

7. D 空格所在部分讲的是,我们的鼻子能够…人类的气味。由此可知,空格处需填入一个动词,和后面的"人类的气味"构成动宾搭配。distinguish意为"区分,辨别",常表示"人通过看、听的感官来识别事物",discover意为"(第一个)发现",determine意为"查明,测定",显然,这三项均不符合文意。detect意为"查明,察觉",符合文意,即"我们的鼻子能够觉察人类的气味",故选D。

8. A 空格所在句讲即使这些气味被…到百万分之一以下。dissolve意为"溶解",disperse意为"分散",diffuse意为"使分散",这三项均不能修饰human smells。dilute意为"稀释",合文意,即"我们的鼻子能够觉察人类的气味,即使这些气味被稀释到百万分之一以下",故选A。

9. D 空格所在句的含义为"奇怪的是,一些人发现他们能闻到一种花的气味却闻不到另一种,…另一些人对这两种花的气味同样敏感"。显然,空格前后为对比关系,whereas意为"然而,但是",用于比较或对比两个事实,符合文意,故正确答案为D项。

10. B 空格所在句的含义为"这可能是因为有些人不具备必要的基因在鼻子里产生…的气味接收器"。由文意可知,这句话是对上一句话的解释,即一些人闻不到另一种花的气味是因为他们不具备必要的基因在鼻子里产生…的气味接收器。由此可推知,这种气味接收器是"特定的",故选B项。

11. C 空格所在句的含义为"这些气味接收器是一些细胞,它们感知到气味,并向大脑发送…。""向大脑发送信号"符合逻辑与文意,故正确答案为C项。

12. A 空格所在句讲的是,但是,研究发现,即使是对某种气味不敏感的人…,如果经常…这种气味,也会突然变得对它敏感起来。由此可知,本句是讲人对气味的敏感在某种条件下可以改变。因此可推知,"之前",人对这种气味是不敏感的。at first意为"起初,起先",符合逻辑与文意,故选A。

13. D 空格所在部分省略了主语people和be动词,讲的是人对某种气味由"不敏感"变得"敏感"的条件。由此可推知,人只有经常"闻到"这种气味,才会对它变得敏感,be exposed to意为"暴露于",符合文意,即"如果经常接触这种气味",故正确答案为D项。

14. C 空格所在部分讲嗅觉不敏感的原因可能是因为大脑觉得,使所有气味接收器一直工作…,考生需判断"所有气味接收器一直工作"的后果。incompetent意为"无能力的,不胜任的",主语一般是人,因此不合文意。另外,所有气味接收器一直工作也不会"没效果"或"不充分",因此,A和D也不符合文意。inefficient意为"效率低的",符合文意,即"所有气味接收器一直工作效率不高",故选C。

15. D 空格所在部分讲的是,但是在需要时,大脑可以…新的气味接收器。由上文可知,大脑不让所有的气味接收器一直工作,因为那样的效率很低。由but可知,空格所在部分和上文构成转折关系,因此,空格处所填单词应有"使气味接收器工作"的含义。summon意为"召唤",主语一般是人,因此不符合文意。另外,大脑也不可能"推行"或是"引起"新的气味接收器,因此,选项A和C也不符合文意。create意为"创造;创作",符合文意,即"但是在需要时,大脑可以创建新的气味接收器",故选D。

16. B 空格所在句讲这可以…解释为什么我们总是对自己的气味不敏感--只是不需要而已。由文意可知,其中"this"指代上一句提到的大脑工作的原理,即"大脑觉得,使所有气味接收器一直工作效率低下"。由此可知,和上一句提到的"嗅觉不敏感的原因"一样,"我们总是对自己的气味不敏感"的原因也能用大脑的这个工作原理来解释。因此,空格所在句和上句为并列关系,also意为"也",符合文意。

17. C 空格所在部分讲的是,我们不会…自己家里的气味。由上文可知,我们总是对自己的气味不敏感,由此可推知,我们对熟悉的

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇八:2005年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译

2005年考研英语阅读理解部分翻译 真题译文+ 题目翻译

但为君故

但为君故 ?整理组

Text 1

人人都喜欢大幅加薪,但是当你知道一个同事薪水加得比你还要多的时候,那么加薪带给你的喜悦感就消失的无影无踪了。如果他还以懒散出名的话,你甚至会变得怒不可遏。这种行为被看作是“人之长情”,其潜在的假定其他动物不可能具有如此高度发达的不公平意识。但是由佐治亚州亚特兰大埃里莫大学的Sarah Brosnan 和Frans de Waal 进行的一项研究表明,它也是“猴之常情”。这项研究成果刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上。

研究者们对雌性棕色卷尾猴的行为进行了研究。它们看起来很可爱,性格温顺,合作,乐于分享食物。最重要的是,就象女人们一样,它们往往比雄性更关注“商品和服务”价值。

这些特性使它们成为Brosnan和de Waal 理想的研究对象。研究者们花了两年的时间教这些猴子用代币换取食物。正常情况下,猴子很愿意用几块石头换几片黄瓜。但是,当两个猴子被安置在隔开但相邻的两个房间里,能够互相看见对方用石头换回来什么东西时,猴子的行为就会变的明显不同。

在卷尾猴的世界里,葡萄是奢侈品(比黄瓜受欢迎得多)。所以当一只猴子用一个代币换回一颗葡萄时,第二只猴子就不愿意用自己的代币换回一片黄瓜。如果一只猴子根本无需用代币就能够得到一颗葡萄的话,那么另外一只就会将代币掷向研究人员或者扔出房间外,或者拒绝接受那片黄瓜。事实上,只要在另一房间里出现了葡萄(不管有没有猴子吃它),都足以引起雌卷尾猴的怨恨。

研究人员指出,正如人类一样,卷尾猴也受社会情感的影响。在野外,它们是相互合作的群居动物。只有当每只猴子感到自己没有受到欺骗时,这种合作才可能稳定。不公平而引起的愤怒感似乎不是人类的专利。拒绝接受较少的酬劳可以让这些情绪准确无误地传达给其它成员。但是这种公平感是在卷尾猴和人类身上各自独立演化而成,还是来自三千五百万前他们共同的祖先,这还是一个悬而未决的问题。

21. 在开头段中,作者引入本文主题的方法是

A. 形成对照

B. 证明一个假定是正确的

C. 进行对比

D. 解释一种现象

22. “it is all too monkey“(第一段组后一行)暗示

A 猴子也对懒散的对手感到愤怒

B 对不公平的待遇不满是猴子的天性

C 像人类一样, 猴子往往会互相妒忌

D 除了猴子,没有其他动物能够产生这样的情绪

23. 选择雌性棕色卷尾喉作为研究对象可能是因为他们

A 更倾向于衡量得到多少

B 对研究人员的指令很专心

C 外表和性格都很好

D 比雄性卷尾喉更慷慨

24. Brosnan博士和de Waal博士的研究最终发现猴子

A 喜欢葡萄甚于喜欢西瓜

B 可以被教会交换东西

C 如果感到欺骗,他们就不会合作

D 与其他猴子分开始感到不高兴

25. 我们从最后一段可以推断出什么

A 经过训练,猴子可以产生社会情感

B 人类的愤怒感来自于何处不得而知

C 动物通常像人类一样公开的表达情感

D 猴子之间的合作只有在野外才稳定

Text 2

还记得科学家们认为吸烟会致人死亡,而那些怀疑者们却坚持认为我们无法对此得出定论的时候吗?还记得怀疑者们坚持认为缺乏决定性的证据,科学也不确定的时候吗?还记得怀疑者们坚持认为反对吸烟的游说是为了毁掉我们的生活方式,而政府应该置身事外的时候吗?许多美国人相信了这些胡言乱语,在三十多年中,差不多有一千万烟民早早的进了坟墓。

现在出现了与吸烟类似的令人感到难过的事情。科学家们前仆后继,试图使我们意识到全球气候变暖所带来的日益严重的威胁。最近的行动是由白宫召集了一批来自国家科学院的专家团,他们告诉我们,地球气候毫无疑问正在变暖,而这个问题主要是人为造成的。明确的信息表明是我们应该立刻着手保护自己。国家科学院院长Bruce Alberts 在专家团报告的前言中加上了这一重要观点:“科学解答不了所有问题。但是科学确实为我们的未来提供了最好的指导,关键是我们的国家和整个的世界在做重要决策时,应该以科学能够提供的关于人类现在的行为对未来影响最好的判断作为依据。

就象吸烟问题一样,来自不同领域的声音坚持认为有关全球变暖的科学资料还不完整。在我们证实这件事之前可以向大气中不断的排放气体。这是一个危险的游戏;到了有百分之百的证据的时候,可能就太晚了。随着风险越来越明显,并且不断增加,一个谨慎的民族现在应该准备一份保单了。

幸运的是,白宫开始关注这件事了。但是显然大多数总统顾问并没有认真看待全球气候变暖这个问题。他们没有出台行动计划,相反只是继续迫切要求进行更多的研究――这是一个经典的“分析导致麻痹案例”。

为了成为地球上有责任心的一员,我们必须积极推进对于大气和海洋的深入研究。但只有研究是不够的。如果政府不争取立法上的主动权,国会就应该帮助政府开始采取保护措施。弗吉尼亚的民主党议员RobertByrd 提出一项议案,从经济上激励私企,就是一个良好的开端。许多人看到这个国家正准备修建许多新的发电厂,以满足我们的能源需求。如果我们准备保护大气,关键要让这些新发电厂对环境无害。

26. 支持吸烟者提出的论点是

A 没有科学依据证明吸烟和死亡之间有关系

B 过去几十年吸烟者的死亡数字毫无意义

C 人们有选择自己生活方式的自由

D 反对吸烟的人们总是讲些无聊的话

27. 在Bruce Alberts看来,科学可以充当

A 保护着

B 审判员

C 批评家

D 指导者

28. 作者提出”paralysis by analysis“(第四段最后一行)是什么意思

A 无休止的研究扼杀了行动

B 仔细的调查会揭示真相

C 谨慎的计划阻碍了进步

D 广泛的研究有助于制定决策

29. 在作者看来,政府应该采取何种措施来应对全球变暖的问题?

A 为建造更清洁的发电厂提供帮助

B 提高公众的环保意识

C 加强进一步的科学研究

D 采取一些立法措施

30. 作者将全球变暖与吸烟的问题联系起来是因为

A 两个问题都被政府忽略了

B 吸烟问题的教训也适用于全球变暖问题

C 吸烟问题的结果使全球变暖问题变得更加严重

D 两者都变得更糟糕了

Text 3

在高质量睡眠的所有因素中,梦似乎是最无法控制的一个。在梦中,窗户通向的世界里,逻辑暂时失去了效用,死人开口说话。一个世纪前,弗洛伊德阐述了革命性的理论,即梦是人们潜意识中欲望和恐惧经伪装后的预示;到了20 世纪70 年代末期,神经病学家们转而认为梦是“精神噪音”,即睡眠时进行的神经修复活动的一种杂乱的副产品。目前,研究人员猜想梦是大脑情感自动调节系统的组成部分,当大脑处于“掉线”状态时对情绪进行规整。一名主要的权威人士说,梦这种异常强烈的精神活动不仅能被驾驭,事实上还可以有意识地加以控制,以帮助我们更好地睡眠和感觉。芝加哥医疗中心心里学系主任Rosalind Cartwright 说“梦是你自己的,如果你不喜欢,就改变它。”

大脑造影的证据支持了以上观点。匹兹堡大学的埃里克博士说,在出现清晰梦境的快速动眼睡眠中大脑和完全清醒时一样活跃。但并非大脑的所有部分都一样,脑边缘系统(“情绪大脑”)异常活跃,而前额皮层(思维和推理的中心地带)则相对平静大。斯坦福睡眠研究员William Dement 博士说:“我们从梦中醒来,或者高兴或者沮丧,这些情绪会伴随我们一整天。”

梦和情绪之间的联系在Cartwright 的诊所的病人身上显露出来了。多数人似乎在晚上入睡的较早阶段做更多不好的梦,而在快睡醒前会逐渐做开心一些的梦,这说明人们在梦里渐渐克服了白天的不良情绪。因为清醒时我们的头脑被日常琐事占据着,所以并不总是想到白天发生的事情对我们情绪的影响,直到我们开始做梦,这种影响才出现。

这一过程不一定是无意识的。Cartwright 认为人们可以练习有意识地控制噩梦的重演。你一醒来就立刻确定梦中有什么在困扰你,设想一下你所希望的梦的结局,下次再做同样的梦时,试图醒来以控制它的进程。通过多次练习,人们完全可以学会在梦中这样做。

Cartwright 说,说到底,只要梦不使我们无法睡眠或“从梦中惊醒”,就没有理由太在意所做的梦。恐怖主义、经济不确定及通常的不安全感都增加了人们的焦虑。那些长期受到噩梦折磨的人应该寻求专家帮助,而对其他人来说,大脑有自动消除不良情绪的方法。安心睡觉甚至做梦,早上醒来时你会感觉好多了。

31. 研究者观念转变了,开始认为梦

A 在形成过程中可以被改变

B 容易受到情绪变化的影响

C 反映我们内心深处的欲望与恐惧

D 是神经修复中产生的随机结果

32. 谈到大脑的边缘系统,作者是想说明

2005考研英语阅读理解详解篇九:2005年考研英语完形填空真题解析

2005年考研英语完形填空真题解析

The human nose is an underrated tool. Humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals,1this is largely because,2animals, we stand upright. This means that our noses are 3 to perceiving those smells which float through the air, 4 the majority of smells which stick to surfaces. In fact, 5 , we are extremely sensitive to smells, 6 we do not generally realize it. Our noses are capable of 7 human smells even when these are 8 to far below one part in one million.

Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another, 9 others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. This may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generate 10 smell receptors in the nose. These receptors are the cells which sense smells and send 11 to the brain. However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smell 12 can suddenly become sensitive to it when 13 to it often enough.

The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that the brain finds it 14 to keep all smell receptors working all the time but can 15 new receptors if necessary. This may 16 explain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells-we simply do not need to be. We are not 17 of the usual smell of our own house, but we 18 new smells when we visit someone else's. The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors 19 for unfamiliar and emergency signals 20 the smell of smoke, which might indicate the danger of fire.

1. [A] although[B] as[C] but[D] while

2. [A] above[B] unlike[C] excluding[D] besides

3. [A] limited[B] committed[C] dedicated[D] confined

4. [A] catching[B] ignoring[C] missing[D] tracking

5. [A] anyway[B] though[C] instead[D] therefore

6. [A] even if[B] if only[C] only if[D] as if

7. [A] distinguishing[B] discovering[C] determining[D] detecting

8. [A] diluted[B] dissolved[C] dispersed[D] diffused

9. [A] when[B] since[C] for[D] whereas

10. [A] unusual[B] particular[C] unique[D] typical

11. [A] signs[B] stimuli[C] messages[D] impulses

12. [A] at first[B] at all[C] at large[D] at times

13. [A] subjected[B] left[C] drawn[D] exposed

14. [A] ineffective[B] incompetent[C] inefficient[D] insufficient

15. [A] introduce[B] summon[C] trigger[D] create

16. [A] still[B] also[C] otherwise[D] nevertheless

17. [A] sure[B] stick[C] aware[D] tired

18. [A] tolerate[B] repel[C] neglect[D] notice

19. [A] available[B] reliable[C] identifiable[D] suitable

20. [A] similar to[B] such as[C] along with[D] aside from

文章背景

文章的主题是"人的鼻子",作者谈论的中心议题是"我们常常低估了鼻子的功能。"作者通过介绍人们对鼻子感知功能的误解和鼻子事实上具有的功能,对比了人们对气味的敏感性,以及大脑对鼻子感知的调节作用。

文章结构

文章第一段提出论点The human nose is an underrated tool(人的鼻子是一种被低估的工

具)。第二段和第三段分别对人们认为人类的嗅觉不灵敏的原因进行反驳,并作出解释。 答案详解

1.【解析】[C] 逻辑衔接题。Humans are often thought to be insensitive smellers compared with animals,this is largely because,animals, we stand upright. "人们常常认为,与动物相比,人类的嗅觉不够敏锐,……而这在很大程度上是因为人类直立行走,这一点与动物……。"although 表示让步;as表示时间或者原因; but表示转折关系; while 表示时间或者对比。四个选项中,but是表示转折的并列连词,but后面的内容是语句重心所在。While也可以表示对比、转折,但作为从属连词也有让步含义。从本题前后的语义关系来看,后半句语义应当是重心所在。因此,正确答案为C。

2.【解析】[B] 语义衔接题。…this is largely because,animals, we stand upright. "而这在很大程度上是因为人类直立行走,这一点与动物……" 人类直立行走,而动物却不同。因此,正确答案为B。

3.【解析】[A] 语义衔接/ 词汇辨析题。This means that our noses areto perceiving those smells which float through the air. "这意味着我们的鼻子……闻到漂浮在空气中的气味。"选项

A. be limited to 被限制在……;B. be committed to 被交给……,答应承担……义务;C. be dedicated to 奉献,献给;D. be confined to 限制在,局限于。根据句意可以排除B、C项。be confined to有"把……局限/限制于"的含义,但是它一般用于具体范围的"局限、限制",与句子的语境不符。因此,正确答案为A。

4.【解析】[C] 语义衔接题。本题目选择介词或者现在分词,将前面的句子和后面的名词连接到一起,体现紧密的逻辑关系。句子叙述到This means that our noses are limited to perceiving those smells which float through the air,the majority of smells which stick to surfaces. "这意味着我们的鼻子只能闻到漂浮在空气中的气味,……大多数在地表附近的气味。"不难发现,人类闻到的气味有限,没有闻到的地表的气味很多。选项A. catching 抓住;B. ignoring 忽略;C. missing 错过;D. tracking 跟踪,追溯。前面说我们的鼻子只能闻到浮在空气中的气味,对于大部分停留在表面的气味当然是"闻不到"。首先可以排除A、D项,ignore含有"有意不……"的意思,显然不符合语境。故正确答案为C。

5.【解析】[B] 逻辑衔接题。In fact,,we are extremely sensitive to smells, we do not generally realize it. 由于本句中的in fact提示了转折关系,因此要选择转折的逻辑关系词。选项A. anyway 无论如何(表示让步);B. though 虽然(表示让步或转折);C. instead 相反;D. therefore 因此(表示结果)。四个选项中,只有though能与in fact连用表示转折(不过,事实上……)。因此,正确答案为B。

6.【解析】[A] 逻辑衔接题。In fact, though, we are extremely sensitive to smells,we do not generally realize it. "事实上,我们对气味极其敏感,……我们一般没有意识到。" 选项A. even if 即使(表让步);B. if only 但愿(后常接虚拟语气,表示愿望);C. only if 如果(用于表达条件关系,only表强调);D. as if 似乎(用于表达比较关系)。四个选项中只有A项 even if 用于表达让步关系"即使"。因此,正确答案为A。

7.【解析】[D] 语义衔接/词汇辨析题。本题目选择动名词,在句子中充当谓语的动作内容。句子叙述到Our noses are capable ofhuman smells "我们的鼻子能够……人的气味"。选择谓语动词,主语和宾语提供信息决定答案。选项A. distinguishing 区别;B. discovering 发现;C. determining 决定;D. detecting发现,发觉,感知。我们的鼻子只能是感知(引申为闻到)人的气味"。因此,正确答案为D。

8.【解析】[A] 语义衔接/ 词汇辨析题。本题目选择动词过去分词形式,构成 "be…to "的短语。Our noses are capable of detecting human smells even when these areto far below one part in one million. "我们的鼻子能够闻到人的气味,即使这些气味被……到百万分之一。" 选

项A. diluted 稀释的(可以用在液体或气体的稀释);B. dissolved 溶解(通常指固体溶解为液体);C. dispersed 散开;D. diffused 扩散,弥漫。气味应该是被稀释或冲淡到百万分之一。因此,正确答案为A。

9.【解析】[D] 逻辑衔接题。 Strangely, some people find that they can smell one type of flower but not another,others are sensitive to the smells of both flowers. "奇怪的是,有些人发现他们可以闻到一种花香,却闻不出另一种,……有些人却对两种花香都很敏感。" 显然构成一种对比关系,只有whereas能用于引导表示转折关系的并列句。因此,正确答案为D。

10.【解析】[B] 词汇辨析题。本题目选择形容词,修饰后面的名词。句子叙述到This may be because some people do not have the genes necessary to generatesmell receptors in the nose. "这意味着有些人的鼻子里缺少某种基因,这种基因是激发人鼻子里的……气味感知器所必需的。"选项A. unusual 不寻常的;B. particular 特别的,特定的;C. unique 独一无二的;D. typical 典型的。这种"气味感知器"具有感知气味这种特定的功能。因此,正确答案为B。

11.【解析】[C] 语义衔接题。本题目选择名词。句子叙述到These receptors are the cells which sense smells and sendto the brain. "这些感知器是一种细胞。这种细胞能够感知气味,并且向大脑传递……"选项A. signs 标记;B. stimuli刺激;C. messages 信息,信号;D. impulses 冲动,推动。身体的各个器官向大脑传递的是信号。因此,正确答案为C。(补充:人体的每个器官附近都密布着神经末梢。在感受到外界刺激时,神经末梢紧张起来处理外界刺激转换成大脑能够辨认的信号,并将这些信号迅速传递给大脑。)

12.【解析】[A] 语义衔接题。However, it has been found that even people insensitive to a certain smellcan suddenly become sensitive to it "然而,……对某种特定气味不敏感的人也能突然变得敏感起来。"在本句中,供选的状语修饰整个句子。选项A. at first 起初;B. at all 根本;C. at large 全面地,详细地,无拘无束地; D. at times 有时。由于谓语部分的频度状语"突然"体现了时间的交替关系,句子应该表达起初不敏感。因此,正确答案为A。

13.【解析】[D] 语义衔接题。even people insensitive to a certain smell at first can suddenly become sensitive to it whento it often enough. "然而,起初对某种特定气味不敏感的人也会突然变得敏感起来,当他们经常……在这种气味中时。"选项A. be subjected to 遭受,屈服于;B. be left to 被留给……;C. be drawn to 被拖到……;D. be exposed to 暴露在……(经常接触)。语境表达的是人处于某种气味所笼罩的环境中。因此,正确答案为D。

14.【解析】[C] 语义衔接/词汇辨析题。The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds itto keep all smell receptors working all the time "认为鼻子不敏感的解释表明:大脑发现让所有的气味感知器一直处于工作状态是……的。" 选项A. ineffective 无效的,不起作用的;B. incompetent 不能胜任的;C. inefficient 效率低的;D. insufficient 不足的,不够的。根据语境,首先可以排除B、D项。ineffective 和 inefficient一个强调效果,一个强调效率。大脑发现让所有的气味感知器一直处于工作状态会使气味感知器的效率降低。因此,正确答案为C。

15.【解析】[D] 语义衔接题。The explanation for insensitivity to smell seems to be that brain finds it inefficient to keep all smell receptors working all the time but cannew receptors if necessary. "认为鼻子不敏感的解释表明:大脑发现让所有的气味感知器一直处于工作状态是效率低的。但是,需要时又可以……新的气味感知器。" 选项A. introduce 介绍,引进;B. summon 呼唤,号召;C. trigger 扣动扳机,一触即发;D. create 创造,产生(从无到有)。trigger the receptors"激活受体"是常见的搭配,但"激活"应该是对现已存在的食物而言。从空格后面的new来判断,只有create才符合逻辑。因此,正确答案为D。

16.【解析】[B] 逻辑衔接题。This mayexplain why we are not usually sensitive to our own smells-we simply do not need to be . "这……可以解释为什么我们通常对自己的气味不敏感--我

们根本不需要(对自己的气味敏感)。"选项A. still 仍然;B. also 也;C. otherwise 否则;D. nevertheless 然而,虽然如此。"this"这个词就表明了逻辑关系应该是并列,翻译成"也",表示和前面的句子是相同或者相近的含义。因此,正确答案为B。

17.【解析】[C] 语义衔接题。本题目选择 "be not…of "的结构,在句子中充当位于动词。句子叙述到We are notof the usual smell of our own house "一般我们没有……我们自己房间里的气味。" 此句的意思是:我们意识不到自己家里的气味,但当我们去拜访他人时就会留意到新的气味。因此,选aware of。 sure of "确信",sick of "厌倦",tired of "厌倦"都不合句意。

18.【解析】[D] 语义衔接题。We are not aware of the usual smell of our own house but wenew smells when we visit someone else's. "我们意识不到自己家里的气味。但是,在拜访别人家时,我们……新的气味。"选项A. tolerate 忍受;B. repel 抵制;C. neglect 忽略;D. notice 注意到。句子中的 "but"提供了信息,前后两个句子含义相反。前面提到"没有注意到自己房间的气味",后面就应该是闻到新的气味。因此,正确答案为D。

19.【解析】[A] 语义衔接题。The brain finds it best to keep smell receptorsfor unfamiliar and emergency signals "大脑会使气味感知器……随时接受不熟悉的和紧急的信号"。选项A. available 可达到的,可工作的;B. reliable 可靠的;C. identifiable 可辨认的;D. suitable 适合的。 "大脑会使气味感知器工作来处理随时接受不熟悉和紧急信号",故选available,符合句子含义。

20.【解析】[B] 语义衔接题。The brain finds it best to keep smell receptors available for unfamiliar and emergency signalsthe smell of smoke, which might indicate the danger of fire. "大脑会使气味感知器用于随时接受不熟悉的和紧急的信号,……烟的气味,因为预示着着火的危险"。选项A. similar to 相似于;B. such as 例如;C. along with 和……一起;D. aside from 除……之外。烟的气味恰恰被包含在前面相邻的"不熟悉和紧急信号"之中,应该选择表示列举意义的短语。因此,正确答案为B。

参考译文

人的鼻子是一种被低估的工具。相比动物而言,经常有人认为人的嗅觉不够敏锐。但这主要是因为我们和动物不同,我们是直立行走的。 这就意味着我们的鼻子局限于察觉那些浮在空气中的气味,而对粘在物体表面的气味却遗漏了。事实上,我们的嗅觉是极其敏锐的,即使我们通常上意识不到这点。我们的鼻子能够嗅出人类的气味,即使当气味被稀释到百万分之一。

奇怪的是,有些人发现他们能闻到一种花香,却闻不到另一种花香,而另一些人却可以闻到这两种。这可能是因为有些人的鼻子中缺少某种产生特定嗅觉感受器所必需的基因。这些嗅觉感受器是一些可以感觉到气味并将其信息送给大脑的细胞。然而我们却发现,即使刚开始对某种气味不敏感的人,如果常常接触该气味,那么他也会突然变得对这种气味敏感了。 看来,对嗅觉不灵敏的解释应该是:大脑发现让所有嗅觉感受器都始终工作的话效率太低,但是在必要时却能产生新的嗅觉感受器。这也许能解释我们为什么通常闻不到自己的气味--因为我们根本不需要闻到自己的气味。我们并没有注意自己家中常有的气味,而当我们到别人家中时却能注意到那里的新气味。大脑发现最好能让气味感受器对不熟悉或是紧急的信号保持敏感,例如烟的气味,其暗示可能有火灾的危险。

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2014版《3+1特种试卷》《考研真相》《阅读基础90篇》《写作160篇》I

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